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Neem trees can reach 15–30 metres (49–98 feet) in height and have attractive rounded crowns and thick furrowed bark. The compound leaves have toothed leaflets and are typically evergreen but do drop during periods of extreme drought. The small fragrant white flowers are bisexual or staminate (male) and are borne in clusters in the axils of the leaves. The fruit is a smooth yellow-green drupe and has a sweet-flavoured pulp.
Neem is usually grown from seed but can be propagated from cuttings or root suckers. The plant is hardy and resilient and grows well in poor, rocky soils. Neem tolerates a wide variety of environmental conditions but cannot survive freezing temperatures or being waterlogged.
Nearly all parts of the neem tree are useful, and many of its medicinal and cosmetic uses are based on its antibacterial and antifungal properties. Neem is commonly used in shampoos for treating dandruff and in soaps or creams for skin conditions such as acne, psoriasis, and athlete’s foot. It is also a component in some toothpastes and mouthwashes, especially in the Indian subcontinent, and young twigs are used directly as crude toothbrushes in rural areas. Neem leaves have long been used as a traditional treatment for diabetes, and there is some clinical evidence suggesting that it may help control blood sugar levels. Neem oil and neem bark and leaves are unsafe for consumption by pregnant women and can cause miscarriage.Oil extracted from the seeds can be used directly as an insect and mite repellent, insecticide, and fungicide and is the source of many commercial pesticide products, including dusts, granules, and concentrates. The primary active insecticidal ingredient, azadirachtin, works to disrupt the hormones involved with insect molting, preventing larvae from developing properly into adults, and is a feeding inhibitor. Neem oil can kill soft-bodied insects on contact and decreases mating and reproductive behaviours, reducing pest fecundity. As a fungicide, neem oil is used to control rust, black spot, mildew, scab, anthracnose, and blight. Given that neem oil breaks down quickly with exposure to ultraviolet light, repeated applications are often necessary. Neem-based pesticides generally have low toxicity for mammals and are common in organic farming applications.